By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical info suggested during this Chuj-English dictionary have been amassed in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language was once in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to collect facts on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a study assistant at the college of Chicago's Chiapas
Study tasks, directed by way of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll clergymen who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and somewhere else in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, frequently within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern incorporated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who was once later to develop into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the undertaking wound down, I back to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate stories in
Anthropology on the college of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas venture fabrics in McQuown's records, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational 12 months I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had amassed and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide protection schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. by way of the end
of August I had shrunk an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we all started paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days per week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco may pass domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We all started by way of reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my error of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. whilst Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey checklist (a kind of 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed through Kaufman for the Chicago initiatives, took good thing about the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the record of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary according to each one. One good thing about this system is that it elicits
vocabulary that might in a different way no longer take place to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic types in addition to hardly heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to list narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated by means of me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i'd move over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric collected by means of those ideas used to be wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who was once operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to gather vegetation within the Cuchumatanes, together with in particular the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been huge cloud wooded area. We gathered for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis accrued the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so on. and feedback at the vegetation. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the vegetation and their ethnobotanical category (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in response to my box notes we gathered 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those info went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that booklet are included during this dictionary.
In could of 1965 Francisco and that i conducted a two-week dialect survey of the realm in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj used to be spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and the city middle, a complete of 27 questionnaires. numerous texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric used to be incorporated
into my lexical documents. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accumulated extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The choice of plant names encouraged me to gather animal names to boot, and to take
notes on their local category. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. some of the names were accrued during the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the technique of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj method of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent sessions, and Francisco went in the course of the lexical records and extra the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had bought the topographical maps for the area of
Huehuetenango (Dirección common de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position by way of position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish models (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost unavoidably transcribed Ix-). i finally brought to the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that was once worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names used to be later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all of the position names
were extra to my lexical records. The Spanish position names said listed below are the authentic names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección common de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate scholar in Geology from LSU was once residing in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out a number of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his research and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by means of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and speak about extra tasks. With Francisco's aid, they accrued close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj quarter, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a few comparative research of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following couple of years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan used to be for Chris to collect and examine the
vocabularies, Brent to write down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to examine the grammars. purely the grammatical research reached e-book (Hopkins 1970).
However, all of the details I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a role instructing Anthropology on the college of Texas
in Austin, and persevered to approach my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she have been educating, after which back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj was once deserted in desire of box education and examine on languages towards Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had all started to keep on with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, while I bought a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the USA (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box pictures, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in sleek useful orthography, will whole this
The assortment comprises all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which now not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements pronounced right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil battle (Manz 1988:83-89). it really is my purpose so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric in addition, together with vast notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary may be further to the collection.
In the summer season of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip records, untouched seeing that approximately 1970. Over the following couple of months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now respectable Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include all of the facts on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Additional info for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Tzitz 'onh, n (te'). Plant name. A small variety of avocado, 1-2" in length, with a thin skin. Persea americana, var. drymifolia. 'onhala', n (lum). Place name: Onalá, a caserío of Jolomtenam, San Mateo. 'onhkoy, n (nok'; 'ajtzo', 'ix). Turtle (any variety). 'opisyal, n (winh). An official of the municipality. " Ex: yopisyal, his employee; yopisyalil 'alkal, the Alcalde's official. 'opísyuh, n. An office (post) in the municipality. " Ex: yopísyuh, his office. how he will pass (serve in) the office...
Ex: sko cha'ah, We believe it. cha'ah, vtr. To find something. cha'ek'ih, vtr-dir. To reach out and receive something being handed to you. Ex: cha'ek'ih = chaek'ih, Reach out and get this (as I can't quite reach you with it)! chajih, vtr-pas. , on a trail. chalaj, vtr-negative. Not to receive or believe something. Ex: max ko chalaj, We don't believe it. maj ko chalaj, We didn't believe it. chap'atih, vtr-dir. To pass something along to someone else, < cha'-p'at-ih. Ex: chap'atih, Pass this along to so-and-so!
Br 8692, 11450, 11571, H 0019. Phacelia platycarpa, Ranunculus geoides, R. peruvianus. 'ol, n. Center. An element in place names. See yol, yola'. Cf. , 1996, Diccionario del idioma q'anjob'al. ) 'om, exclam. Child's word, on seeing something he/she wants, but doesn't want to name it. 'omon tut, n ('anh). A kind of k'ojyem tut (Spanish "frijol de mata"), beans that grow into bushes. Black beans, the pod yellowish at maturity. = k'ik' k'ojyem. Cf. chak k'ojyem = chak k'ox tut, and k'un patok, the other bush beans.