By Carsten Becker
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Ayeri
1, page 15. Constituent order typology 29 THIS IS STILL A DRAFT The order of possessive pronouns in relation to single adjectives is arbitrary. GEN dano green Relative clauses are always last in a noun phrase; the relative pronoun is marked for the case of its head if there is a phrase constituent (for example an adjective or a pronoun) in between it and its head – the relative clause is in brackets, its head underlined, and the adjective separating it from its head in the main clause is in italics: (63a) Adareng nangās tado [sasena ang məningay vās].
Payne 114). Payne (114) furthermore notes that it is not unusual for languages not to make a distinction between these two. The copula has been glossed in such constructions as a covert morpheme in earlier examples as well because full sentences without a verb are not usually found in the language. 1 Due to there not being an overt copula morpheme, there is no tense, mood, or focus marking in these constructions. These are to be deduced from context, or by means of additional adverbs. For predicate adjectives, the same construction is used: (97) Ø ang Yan pakur tamala.
Payne 91). 1 Noun and noun-phrase operations Compounding Ayeri has the ability of compounding to generate new words. Consider for example: (74) noun + noun: prihino ‘table’ + gumo ‘work’ → prihingumo ‘desk, workbench’ noun + adjective: kardang ‘school’ + iray ‘high’ → kardangiray ‘university’ verb + nominalizer: anl- ‘to bring’ + -maya ‘NMLZ’ → anlamaya ‘waiter’ verb + adposition: + agonan ‘outside’ → ilagonan ‘edition’ il- ‘to give’ Compound nouns may differ in meaning from their parts in that the meaning of the whole cannot necessarily be deduced from its parts: Consider for example baytandevo, which breaks down as ‘blood-head’ to mean ‘headache’, probably due to an earlier assumption that an internal injury of the head causes the pain.