By Soh Kheang Loh, Yuen May Choo (auth.), Ravindra Pogaku, Rosalam Hj. Sarbatly (eds.)
Biofuels will play a key function within the twenty first century because the international faces serious difficulties; risky gas costs and international climatic alterations. either one of those are associated with the overdependence at the fossil fuels: petroleum, usual gasoline, and coal. Transportation is nearly absolutely depending on petroleum established fuels resembling fuel, diesel gasoline, liquefied petroleum gasoline, and on normal gasoline. regardless of an important quantity of analysis into biofuels, the sphere has no longer been capable of change fossil fuels. fresh advances will switch this state of affairs. Extracting gasoline from biomass has been very pricey (both monetarily and in land usage), time eating, unusable byproducts, and so forth. expertise to acquire liquid gasoline from non-fossil resources has to be better to be speedier, extra effective and less costly. This ebook will hide the present know-how used for numerous plant forms and discover shortcomings with each.
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Various gasifying agents such as oxygen, air or steam can be utilised. The supercritical water gasification process occurs at temperature more than 374°C and 220 atm. This process is suitable for biomass with moisture content more than 50%. Product gas comprised of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4. The formation of tar and char is less with gasification efficiency of almost 100%. This technology is still in developing stage (Kelly-Yong et al. 2007). Typical gasifier is suitable for biomass with moisture content <30%.
E. <2 s at intermediate temperature of 400–600°C in oxygen-free condition. The produced liquid is known as bio-oil and is dark in colour, with energy density of 20 GJ/m3 and transferrable using exiting oil tankers. It is used as boilers fuels and in specialty chemicals flavouring and colouring. Bio-oil can be upgraded using H2 or in catalytic environment it can be converted to BTX, MTBE and compatible transportation fuel (Klass 1998). 32 S. Yusup et al. For ethanol production via fermentation, three types of biomass are employed.
1 Value-adding opportunities in palm oil and biomass-based industries Industry Palm oil based Raw materials Crude palm oil Refined palm oil Palm olein Palm stearin Crude palm kernel oil Refined palm kernel oil Palm kernel olein Palm kernel stearin Palm biomass based Empty fruit bunch Mesocarp fiber Palm kernel shell Palm frond Palm trunk Palm oil mill effluent Value-adding products • Food based Cooking oil, shortening, margarine, vanaspati, confectionery, bakery fats, ice cream, cocoa butter alternatives, specialty fats • Phytonutrients Carotenes, tocols (vitamin E), coenzyme Q10, squalene, phytosterols, lecithin • Oleochemicals Basic oleochemicals, cosmetics, personal care products, candles, household care products, lubricants, emulsifiers, soaps, degreasers, plastics, textile processing, metal processing, protective coating, explosive, etc.