By Gustave Mathieu
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Extra info for Advances in the Teaching of Modern Languages
Ability to utter novel sentences using the syntactical patterns and words presented in the program, and to demonstrate this ability by accurate translation of English into Chinese. 7. Ability to recognize fifty Chinese characters as corresponding to their equivalents in the spoken language; also, ability to copy these characters with correct stroke order (but not necessarily to write them without a model, although this is taught incidentally in the program as an aid to memorization). A considerable variety of programming techniques were used.
Criterion Tests T h e program content was analyzed to determine the emphasis given to each of the four basic language skills. Based on this analysis, a post-training criterion test was constructed covering each of the four skills. In the scoring, listening comprehension and speaking received the most weight, followed by reading, and then writing. In the test on listening comprehension, each item consisted of a tape-recorded Spanish stimulus and five printed English responses, 54 ADVANCES IN THE TEACHING OF MODERN LANGUAGES from which the student selected the one most closely approximating the stimulus.
Test results showed that there were very few instances in which a subject failed to learn vocabulary equivalents (either Chinese in response to English, or vice-versa). 3. Grammar. T h e rationale underlying the presentation of grammatical materials included the following ideas : (a) each grammatical pattern or transformation must be introduced as a separate entity to be learned and thoroughly exemplified before sentences exemplifying new patterns are introduced; (b) the "dynamic logic" of a particular grammatical pattern should be evident in the pattern itself and the way it is used, and particularly in contrast to patterns previously introduced; (c) grammatical explanations or other comments on patterns should be used after the patterns have been exemplified, in order to help the learner to organize cognitively the structure of the language he is learning; (d) the learner should be required to practice grammatical transformations, translations, and other manipulations of grammatical patterns, this sort of practice being in general better than the mere repetition of grammatical patterns.