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By M.V. Nermut and A.C. Steven (Eds.)

Animal Virus constitution offers a accomplished, state of the art precis of the constitution, molecular composition, and primary antigenic and organic houses of every presently well-known kinfolk of animal viruses. details deriving from electron microscopy, computing device snapshot processing and X-ray diffraction is built-in systematically with biochemical information into third-dimensional molecular versions of viral structure. a short account of virus/cell interplay and pathogenicity completes every one bankruptcy.

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89, 111-122. M. R. (1968) Regulation of glutamine synthetase. XII. Electron microscopy of the enzyme from Escherichza coli. Biochemistry 7, 2143-2152. C. (1953a) A method of freeze-drying for electron microscopy. Exp. Cell Res. 4, 188-201. C. (1953b) The shapes and sizes of purified viruses as determined by electron microscopy. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 18, 185-196. V. V. J. HOCKLEY2 and H. , and "Robert Koch lnstitut, Nordufer 20, loo0 Berlin 65, Germany Interactions of viruses with the host cell comprise their adsorption to the cell surface (in most cases via specific receptors), uptake and transport in the cytoplasm, followed by uncoating and release of the genome, nucleic acid replication, and finally synthesis of virus proteins leading to the assembly of new virus progeny.

Electron microscopy is usually the first applied and most practical tool for the determination of the triangulation number provided the capsomers are easily recognized. In the P = 1 class it is sufficient to identify two neighbouring pentavalent capsomers and determine the number of capsomers (n) on the edge, including both pentavalent ones. Then T = (n - 1)’. However, this formula does not apply to the P = 3 and skew classes, though their triangulation numbers can be determined from one-sided images produced by negative staining or shadowing.

These methods may require modifications of the standard thin-sectioning procedures but for all the techniques it is in vitro cultured monolayers of infected cells that have provided the most valuable results rather than pathological specimens derived from infected animals. g. Glauert, 1975) and the following comments are addressed mainly to the specialized requirements of preparing cell cultures for sectioning. Monolayers of cultured cells demand particularly gentle treatment during fixation and embedding and whenever possible it is desirable to use in situ methods.

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