Applied Hydrometeorology by Pukh Raj Rakhecha, Vijay P. Singh PDF

By Pukh Raj Rakhecha, Vijay P. Singh

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1 gives an approximate composition by volume of the constituents of dry air. This measure refers to the volume that each gas would occupy if the component gases were separated and brought to the same temperature and pressure. 1, ninety-nine percent of the atmosphere is made up of N2 and O2, with N2 four times as abundant as oxygen. 0. Although these gases play a vital role in complex cycles that support life on earth, they play almost no direct role in radiative processes associated with the heat budget of the earthatmosphere system.

G = gd, the disturbed air parcel will have the same temperature as the environmental air temperature and would have no tendency to move upwards or downwards. In this case the atmosphere is in a state of neutral condition. Obviously, the environmental lapse rate determines whether the atmosphere is stable, unstable or neutral for vertical air movement. The principal criteria for finding the stability or instability for a dry atmosphere are as follows: 38 Applied Hydrometeorology g < gd g > gd g = gd stable atmosphere unstable atmosphere neutral In the saturated atmosphere, a parcel of air disturbed upward will cool at the saturated adiabatic lapse rate gs.

The northern hemisphere receives its maximum amount of solar radiation while the southern hemisphere its least. On 21st of June, the day is of 24 hours at 66½ °N parallel of latitude. The duration of light goes on increasing to the north of 66½ °N parallel of latitude and light lasts for six months at the north pole. During this period it is just opposite in the southern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere is away from the sun. Less than half of the southern hemisphere receives light. At 66½ °S parallel of latitude, night is of 24 hours on 21st of June.

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