By Arthur N. Popper, Anthony D. Hawkins, Richard R. Fay, David A. Mann, Soraya Bartol, Thomas J. Carlson, Sheryl Coombs, William T. Ellison, Roger L. Gentry, Michele B. Halvorsen, Svein Løkkeborg, Peter H. Rogers, Brandon L. Southall, David G. Zeddies, Willi
This Technical record provides the end result of a operating team that used to be demonstrated to figure out largely appropriate sound publicity directions for fishes and sea turtles. After attention of the variety of fish and sea turtles, guidance have been built for huge teams of animals, outlined incidentally they observe sound. diverse sound resources have been thought of by way of their acoustic features and acceptable metrics outlined for size of the got degrees. the consequent sound publicity instructions are provided in a collection of tables. on occasion numerical directions are supplied, expressed in acceptable metrics. whilst there have been inadequate information to help numerical values, the relative likelihood of results taking place used to be evaluated, even if the actual chance of results relies on the got point. those sound publicity guidance, that are in accordance with the easiest medical info on the time of writing, will be handled as intervening time. the expectancy is that with extra examine the ideas might be subtle and extra cells within the tables accomplished. ideas are recommend defining the examine standards of optimum precedence for extending those meantime publicity directions.
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Additional resources for ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI
The period of driving of an individual pile or the passing of a seismic array). In this case, the SEL is designated as the cumulative SEL (SELcum) (Hastings and Popper 2005; Popper and Hastings 2009; Halvorsen et al. 2011, 2012a; Casper et al. 2012b). SELcum is the linear summation of the individual sound events over the time period of interest. If the SELss is approximately the same for all events, then the SELcum can be estimated as SELss+10log10(N), where N is the number of impulsive events.
1). 1 Metrics 25 Acoustic particle motion is defined as that motion caused by a sound wave of a given infinitesimal part of the medium relative to the medium as a whole, and it is an integral part of any sound field. Unlike pressure, particle motion is directional in nature and is typically described using three dimensional vector notation. In the far field of a sound source (often defined as starting at a distance of about one-sixth the wavelength of a sound from the source – van Bergeijk 1964), and away from any boundaries, the particle velocity is directly related to the pressure as a ratio proportional to the acoustic impedance of the medium, and the predominant vector is in the direct path from the source.
Southall et al. (2007) developed M frequency weighting functions for five functional hearing groups of marine mammals, with the same mathematical structure as the C frequency weighting used in human hearing. This method was designed specifically to represent the broader bandwidth at which auditory effects (TTS and/or Permanent Threshold Shift - PTS) might occur for higher exposures. 28 6 The Nature of Man-Made Sound A similar attempt at weighting has been made for individual species of fish and other animals by Nedwell et al.