By Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert, Peter Mcgregor
The full consultant to sensible paintings within the organic sciences: from notion of the research, via information assortment, facts research and at last presentation.
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Extra resources for Asking Questions in Biology: A Guide to Hypothesis Testing, Experimental Design and Presentation in Practical Work and Research Projects (3rd Edition)
Or SE) measures the spread of multiple sample means around the true population mean. ) of the true population mean. Since sample means are almost always normally distributed, almost whatever the distribution of the raw data, it is always OK to cite a standard error with your sample mean. The calculations are as follows: The standard deviation: 1. Calculate the sum of all the data values in your group (Σx). 2. Square the individual data values and sum them, giving (Σx 2). 3. Calculate Σx 2 − (Σx)2/n (remember that n is the sample size, the number of values in your set of data).
To plot medians and interquartile ranges as a box plot, go to ‘Boxplot’ in the ‘Graphs’ menu. Again, choose ‘Simple’ and ‘Summaries for groups of cases’ and click ‘Define’. Enter Sniffs and Treatmen in the ‘Variable’ and ‘Category axis’ boxes, respectively, and click ‘OK’ for the figure. Scatterplots. To generate a scatterplot of the relationship between two variables, select ‘Scatter’ from the ‘Graph’ menu, and click ‘Simple’ then ‘Define’. 2, Fig. (iv)) in the ‘Y-axis’ and ‘X-axis’ boxes and click ‘OK’.
Qxd 18/06/2007 03:11PM Page 27 EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS 27 Again, we want some way of indicating how much confidence to place in the median. By far the simplest way is to find the confidence limits to the median using a standard table, part of which is shown in Appendix I. All we need to do is rank order our data values as before, count the number of values in the sample (n), then use n to read off a value r from the table. Normally, we would be interested in the r-value appropriate to confidence limits of approximately 95 per cent (‘approximately’ because, of course, the limits always have to be two of the values in the data set, one above the median and one below – if n is less than 6, 95 per cent confidence limits cannot be found).