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Warrendale, PA, Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility Land Sea Air and Space International (SAE) (SP-847). Ntziachristos L, Samaras Z (1998). COPERT II: computer programme to calculate emissions from road traffic – methodology and emission factors. Thessaloniki, European Topic Centre on Air Emissions. Ntziachristos L, Samaras Z (1999). COPERT III: computer programme to calculate emissions from road traffic – methodology and emission factors. Thessaloniki, European Topic Centre on Air Emissions, 1999.

The values of the PM measured by the Labeco tests are much higher than those of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment study (Santino & Picini, 2001), probably as a result of the urban driving sequence simulation that required many trips: that is, many departures and varying speed. The emissions of a two-stroke motor vary considerably during the transition time to reach optimal speed and revolutions per minute. 2 mg of PM per km travelled. This figure concurs with the study of Santino & Picini (2001) at similar speeds but is more than quadrupled in the simulation of road-run speed and at higher speeds – with engines that have been transformed from the factory original that can reach higher speed.

In this case, although the indicator considered is not precise (licence plates as an indicator of vehicle use), the concentration of mopeds is greater in northern Italy. 11 mopeds per 100 inhabitants. The Province of Rome coincides with the national average, whereas that of Valle d’Aosta, for example, is above it. FIG. 3. PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION WITH LICENCE PLATES IN A REGION VERSUS THE PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL POPULATION IN THAT REGION % of population per region Source: ARPAT & ACI Toscana Service (2001).

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