By Sharon Hargus (Ed.), Keren Rice (Ed.)
This number of articles on pressure and tone in numerous Athabaskan languages will curiosity theoretical linguists and traditionally orientated linguists alike. the quantity brings to mild new facts at the phonetics and/or phonology of prosody (stress, tone, intonation) in a variety of Athabaskan languages, Chiricahua Apache, Dene Soun'liné, Jicarilla Apache, Sekani, Slave, Tahltan, Tanacross, Western Apache, and Witsuwit’en. to boot, a few contributions describe how prosody is to be reconstructed for Proto-Athabaskan, and the way it advanced in many of the daughter languages.
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Additional resources for Athabaskan Prosody
By T. A. Sebeok, 903-978. (Current Trends in Linguistics The Hague, Paris: Mouton. —. 1976. Proto-Athabaskan- Fricatives and the First Person Singular. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Unpublished manuscript. —. (this volume). "Athabaskan tone". Krauss, Michael and Victor Golla. 1981. "Northern Athapaskan Languages". Subarctic, ed. by J. Helm, 67-85. (Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 6, edited by W. C. : Smithsonian Institution. Krauss, Michael and Jeff Leer.
The Western Apache dialects discussed by de Reuse (this volume) are interesting in that they can be viewed as sharing an underlying system with the rest of the Apachean group: as mentioned above, on full vowel stems, only low tone is present underlyingly. However, assuming shared lexical representations with respect to tone, phonetic implementation of the unmarked tone differs across the Apachean languages. In Navajo, Chiricahua Apache, and the Tonto dialect of Western Apache, the toneless vowel is always realized as high, while in San Carlos Apache, it can be either high or mid depending on the quantity of the vowel.
This study thus opens up avenues for research on the relationship between syntactic structure and prosodic structure. 7. Conclusion Certain aspects of the prosody of Athabaskan languages are relatively well understood. Thanks largely to the work of Krauss (1979, this volume) and Leer (1979), the historical scenario that gave rise to tone from original constriction (glottalization) is fairly clear. In the area of stress, the attraction of stress to the stem has been so widely reported that we take this to be a universal within the family, regardless of whether a language is tonal or not.