By Bob Reinalda
This quantity assesses the significance of overseas agencies in worldwide governance over the past ten years. the celebrated staff of overseas individuals search to figure out the ways that IO's give a contribution to the answer of world difficulties by means of influencing overseas decision-making in ways in which transcend the bottom universal denominator of nationwide pursuits.
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Extra resources for Autonomous Policymaking by International Organisations
Cox recently proclaimed a so-called ‘new realism’ that—while not denying the remains of a state system—takes ‘civilisations’ as their unit of analysis (Cox 1997). Jacobson has recently been engaged in a research project untangling the interaction of domestic and international politics, called ‘double-edged diplomacy’ (Evans et al. 1993). Cox and Jacobson regard international organizations as political systems, which is in accordance with Easton’s seminal study that appeared some years earlier (Easton 1965).
International organizations also possess autonomy in their intermediary role between regions of different economic development. Increased autonomy is especially observable in international economic institutions like the IMF, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. This autonomy is remarkable since they represent salient issue areas in Cox and Jacobson’s terms. It is a partial autonomy, however, since it mostly draws back to developing or dependent countries. 2 In this way, international bureaucrats—backed up by powerful states with no democratic accountability-determine policies which have an impact on foreign populations.
Public choice (the application of the methodology of economics to the study of politics) offers one possibility to fill this lacuna in part. Its major premise is the postulate of methodological individualism: collective outcomes are explained by the rational behaviour of utility maximizing individual agents who interact in particular institutional settings that constrain their behaviour (Mueller 1997). Public choice has been successfully applied to many subdisciplines in the social sciences, but only rarely to the study of international organizations (exceptions include Vaubel 1986; Frey 1997).