By Katherine Demuth
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34) a. John left as if he was bored by the meeting. b. Paul will arrive today if not he will arrive tomorrow. c. Luc came in then he climbed the stairs. 12 The morphological spell-out of –wh expressions differs whether the restrictor relates two propositions, the truth value of which could be true, as in (33a), false, as in (33b), not determined, as in (33c), or either true or false, as in (33d). Evidence that –wh elements relate truth conditional elements comes from the fact that in Italian as well as in the other Romance languages including French, the conjunction itself may include the spell-out of the truth value ’true’ and ’false’ in the form of the adverbials ‘yes’ and ‘no’.
By composition of relations two new relations are derived: the relation contain and the relation c-command (sister-contain). Thus, K contains α if K immediately contains α, or K immediately contains L which immediately contains α; conversely α is a term of K if K contains α. And α c-commands β if α, is the sister of K which contains β. See Chomsky (1998) for discussion. . An antisymmetric relation is asymmetric and reflexive, whereas an asymmetric relation is irreflexive. Contrary to an asymmetric relation, an antisymmetric relation may include reflexive relations such as
See Di Sciullo (2000, forthcoming) for discussion. . I assume that the elementary trees in (17a) and (17b) are part of the lexicon. Functional affixes do not differ from derivational affixes in this respect. See Di Sciullo (1999b) for discussion. . Here are some Op-Shells for –wh D Operators. In these representations, the –wh variable in the upper layer is spelled out by th-, the relational head in the lower layer is specified for spatial features, +/–Proxi(mate), and +Loc(ation). The head of the lower clause relates a predicate variable (pred) to an individual type of variable e.