Download e-book for iPad: Optochemical nanosensors by Andrea Cusano; et al

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8, suppose that a plane light wave with a wave vector ki an electric field amplitude Eo is incident on a plane surface separating of two of different media of refraction indexes n1 and n2. The angle of incidence between the incidence vector ki and the normal to the separation plane is θI. After striking the interface surface, a reflected and a transmitted (refracted) wave will be observed. 8 Light wave approaching the interface between two different optical mediums of refraction index n1 and n2 and the effects of the reflection and refraction of light.

Optical waveguides also include leaky modes, and in the case of an inverted slab waveguide with n 2 > n1, n3 only leaky waves are supported. It must be mentioned that slab waveguides can support two independent TE and TM modes. Depending on (k02 n32 − β2) values, no feasible physical solution (β > k0 n1), confined or guided modes (k0 n3 < β < k0 n1), substrate radiation modes (k0 n2 < β < k0 n1), and the radiation modes of the waveguides (0 < β < k0 n3) can be obtained. 13. On the left, the optical energy is radiated through the upper layer losing all optical energy coupled inside the central layer.

For the purpose of this book, evanescent fields are very useful to interact with the object species to be detected and for this reason, in addition to its amplitude, a key parameter is the depth of penetration of the exponentially decaying evanescent field. This is defined as the distance from the surface over which the electric field of the standing wave disturbance decays e−1 of its initial value at the interface. 9), the total reflection can be frustrated, and appears the phenomenon of optical tunneling whereby a wave is partially transmitted through it would be forbidden by geometrical optics [10].

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